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Packaging Glossary

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Acrylic - Thermoplastic materials, such as Lucite and Plexiglas, made by polymerization of monomeric esters of acrylic acids.

Aesthetics - The sum total of the visual response to the beauty of an object. Elements of aesthetics may include: color, shape or particular features of the object.

Airless Pump - Pump that contains a gasket which moves up the chamber under vacuum pressure allowing the product to be dispensed.

Aluminum - A silver-white metallic element, light in weight, ductile, malleable, and not readily corroded or tarnished.

Amber - A brown color of glass or plastic containers; often used to protect the contents of the container from exposure to light.

Applicator Cap - A container closure designed so that it may be used to apply the contents of the container, such as oil and grease spouts or daubers.

Applicator Rod - Short glass rod 2 mm to 4 mm in diameter used in conjunction with an applicator cap. The end which enters the cap is cut square. The other end may have a variety of glazed finishes.

Aromatherapy Packaging - Items used to package aromatherapy products, including glass and aluminum bottles, vials, perfume samplers and candle holders.

Atomizers - A device for reducing liquids to a fine spray.

Autoclavable - Products produced from resins that can withstand 250 degrees for 45 minutes.

Autoclave - A pressure vessel into which steam or other vapor can be introduced at a suitably high temperature to sterilize packages or other objects placed therein. Similar pressure vessels used for sterilizing food products packed in glass jars or cans are normally called retorts.

Average Wall Thickness - A number obtained by adding the thickest wall section measurement of a container to the thinnest wall section and dividing by two. It does not describe the distribution of plastic material in a container.



Back Off - Loosening of cap; can be caused by improper cap application torque, improper mating of the cap to the container, or improper liner facing and/or backing

Bail -Wire handle for carrying purposes, with or without grip, fastened to ears that are riveted or welded to opposite sides of a container.

Bar Top Cork - A stopper made by gluing natural corks (or synthetic corks) to decorative plastic or wooden tops; also known as T Corks.

Base - The bottom of the container; the surface upon which the container stands.

Bead - The raised ridge on a bottle located between the screw-threads and the shoulder; also known as a Collar.

Bevel - The sloping edge of a container or part. A bevel adds a short flat span at the junction of two sides of a container.

Blister – Large air bubble in glass.

Body - Sidewall of a container between the top and the bottom.

Borosilicate Glass - A high silicate glass that has at least 5% boron oxide.

Boston Round - A style of bottle characterized by a round cylindrical shape with a short curved shoulder. Typically used by the drug and chemical industries.

Bottle - A portable container for holding liquids, characteristically having a neck and mouth and made of glass or plastic

Broken Finish – A finish defect in which has cracks or actual pieces of glass broken out of it.

Broken Ware - A general defect where ware is cracked or broken into pieces.

Bubbles - Variably sized and shaped air or gas pockets in glass.

Bucket - Deep, cylindrical vessel, usually of metal, plastic, or wood, with a flat bottom and a semicircular bail

Bullet Bottle - Tall, narrow plastic bottles with gradually sloped shoulders. Also known as Cosmo or Imperial Round bottles; this style is a narrower version of Boston rounds.

Bulb - The rubber, squeezable part of a dropper assembly which is used to suction fluids into the pipette.



Calibrated - Divided or marked with gradations, graduations, or other indexes of degree, quantity, etc.

Candle Holders - Glass, leaded glass, and plastic candle holders are available in a variety of styles, including tabletop, aromatherapy, etc.

Canning Jar - Glass jar, also known as a mason jar, in which food is preserved, typically having a wide mouth for access; sometimes called Fruit Jars.

Canning Supplies - Mason jars and closures.

Cap Seat - The ledge inside the mouth of a bottle, such as a milk bottle, to receive a plug closure.

Capacity - The volume of space inside a container provided for a given amount of product. Note the difference between capacity and overflow capacity.

Capsule - Lead or tinfoil (or sometimes plastic) secondary cover closure used to cover the closure and finish of a bottles product.

Carboy - A bottle or similar container made of glass, plastic, metal or clay, having a capacity of 3 to 13 gallons. Where the carboy is used for shipping purposes, it is usually designed to be encased in a rigid protective outer container for shipment, often with the use of cushioning materials prescribed by DOT specifications, particularly when the carboy contains dangerous liquids. Carboys are also used for local shipment of spring water, distilled water and drinking water where no protective container is used or only a simple outer container from which the carboy is removed for dispensing purposes.

CC - Cubic centimeter. A unit for measuring volume, where 1 cc = 0.0338 ounce.

Certificate of Compliance (COC) - A document signed by an authorized party affirming that the supplier of a product or service has met the requirements of the relevant specifications, contract or regulation.

Check – A tiny crack, usually caused by contact of hot glass with a cold surface.

Chemical Resistance - Ability of a material to retain utility and appearance following contact with chemical agents. Chemical resistance properties include stain resistance, swelling resistance, moisture resistance, corrosion resistance, etc.

Child Resistant Cap (CRC) - Closure that requires dissimilar motions which make removal by a child difficult and is compliant with the Code of Federal Regulations Title 16, Part 1700.

Chill Marks - Irregular, often undulating, wrinkles or ripples on the surface of a glass container usually caused by a cold metal mold or the action of a pressing plunger.

Chipped Finish - A defect in the finish in which a small section is broken on the top or side.

Choked Neck - Narrowed or constricted opening in the neck of a container.

Circumference - The outer boundary or perimeter of a circular area.

Clarity - Freedom of haze or cloudiness in plastic material.

Closure Height - Overall height of the closure, measured from the closure top to the open end of the closure.

Closure Plugs/Fitments - Any of various styles of plastic and metal closure plugs and fitments intended to reduce the size of a bottle neck finish for a more controlled dispensing of product. Plugs and fitments are available for a wide variety of end uses.

Closure Skirt - The vertical wall of a closure; also see Skirt.

Closures - Stock and custom closures, including plastic, glass, rubber, metal, dispensing (hinged top, snip top, disc top, thread, snap-on, push/pull), conventional (ribbed, fluted, smooth), specialty (bleach, brush well, jigger, button seal, aerosol, perforated), linerless, lined, applicator, decorative, child resistant, tamper evident, heat seal, crimp-on, and a Counter Cap closure.

Closures, Applicator - Styles include straight brush, bent brush, dauber, wick, glass rod, nail polish and cosmetic applicator closures.

Coating - A thin layer of lacquer, varnish, or other organic material applied to the surface of a container.

Cobalt - A blue color of glass or plastic containers; often used to protect the contents of the container from exposure to light.

Cocking - Mis-application of a closure to a container. Closure will appear uneven on the container or is pulled off to one side, due to uneven downward pull of the threads.

Collapse - Contraction of the walls of a container (e.g., upon cooling) leading to permanent deformation of the container.

Collar - The raised ridge on a bottle located between the screw-threads and the shoulder; also known as the Bead.

Compatibility - Ability of a container, whether lined or unlined, to resist degradation of or by the product contained.

Containers, Hinged Lid - Any container with a lid attached by means of a hinge. Cosmetic compacts and accessory cases, kilner jars, and bail jars are examples.

Continuous Thread - An uninterrupted protruding helix on the neck of a container to hold a screw-type closure. Continuous thread finishes have GPI finish designations in the 400 series. See Also CT.

Cork - A closure made of cork, or, by extension, any plug-type closure.

Cork Finish - A finish which is closed by means of a cork.

Corks - Liquor, wine and beer corks. Cork stoppers available in various sizes.

Corrosion - The deterioration of a metal by chemical or electrochemical reaction with its environment.

Cosmetic Cases - Items intended for packaging cosmetics, including lipstick cases, mascara cases, eye/lip pencils, blush pots, compacts, palette compacts, etc.

Cosmo Bottle - Tall, narrow plastic bottles with gradually sloped shoulders. Also known as Bullet or Imperial Round bottles; this style is a narrower version of Boston rounds.

Cosmo Oval Bottle - A cosmo oval is a tall bottle with a narrow depth that has gradually sloped shoulders and an oval base.

Cover - Lose end of an open top can, pail, or drum

Cover Groove - A groove on the top of a closure or lid that receives the bail and keeps the closure from slipping

CRC - Child resistant closure. There are several types that have been developed for products that constitute a hazard to small children. Basic principles of CRC's are (1) press-turn, (2) squeeze-turn and (3) combination lock and hidden key.

Crimp Seal - (1) Applying a seal of aluminum or coated aluminum foil by crimping with a die, generally corrugated. (2) A method of heat-sealing thermoplastic coated papers or thermoplastic films with the pressure exerted by knurled wheels or bars having a corrugated surface. (3) A small flat metal piece that is crimped mechanically to parts of flat strap to maintain tension and connect them permanently.

Crown Cap - This is a crimped closure. Flutes are pressed into the flaring skirt of a shallow metal disk, which holds an inner disk of resilient lining material that forms the actual seal.

CT Finish - Continuous thread finish. An uninterrupted protruding helix on the neck of a container to accommodate a screw type closure. Designed primarily to seal container finishes with the GPI finish number designations in the 400 series.

Cylinder Bottle - Cylinder bottles are tall and narrow with straight sides. These bottles have horizontal shoulders that transition into the sides abruptly.



Daubers - Normally part of an applicator closure. Popular for cosmetic, household and pharmaceutical products. Usually fitted with sponges or cotton, wool or felt pads, like those provided with liquid shoe polish or bingo ink bottles.

DBJ Neck Finish – A type of neck finish that is specific to Dairy, Beverage & Juice bottles. DBJ caps have a patented J band for tamper evidence and are not recommend for carbinated liquids.

Decanter – Highly decorative, indefinitely reusable bottles typically made for dispensing liquor or wine.

Deep Skirt - A cap having a deeper skirt (more "H") and generally a heavier thread than the 400 finish series.

Density - Weight of a gas, liquid or solid substance per unit of volume, expressed in grams per cc or pounds per cubic foot.

Deodorant Containers - Stock and custom deodorant sticks in round, oval or flat-pack design, with push-up or propel/repel assembly.

Diameter - Straight line passing through the center of a circle or sphere and meeting the circumference or surface at each end.

Dimension "C" - The "C" dimension of a bottle is the opening control diameter (inside diameter) at the top of the neck finish.

Dimension "E" - The outside diameter of the neck. The difference between the "E" and "T" dimensions divided by two determines the thread depth.

Dimension "H" - BOTTLE "H" Dimension: The height of the neck finish. Measured from the top of the neck to the point where the diameter "T", extended down, intersects the shoulder. The bottle finish "H" must be greater than closure "H" (corrected for the thickness of the compressed liner or other sealing elements). CLOSURE "H": The "H" dimension is measured from the inside top of the closure vertically down to the bottom of the closure skirt. Effective "H" must take into consideration the liner, or other sealing element, if one is used. To determine effective "H", liner thickness or other sealing element under compression must be determined and subtracted from unlined "H".

Dimension "I" - The minimum opening through the finish and neck expressed by measuring the inner diameter of the neck at its narrowest point. Specifications require a minimum "I" to allow sufficient clearance for filling tubes. Linerless closures, with a plug or land seal, and dispensing plugs and fitments require a controlled "I" dimension for proper fit.

Dimension "L" - L dimension is the minimum vertical dimension to the top of a concealed bead for closure thread clearance. It is measured from the top of the finish to the point where diameter "E" extended parallel to centerline intersects the bead.

Dimension "S" - Measured from the top of the finish to the top edge of the first thread. The "S" dimension is the key factor which determines the orientation of the closure to the bottle and the amount of thread engagement between the bottle and cap.

Dimension "T" - The outside diameter of the closure, including the thread. The tolerance range of the "T" dimension determines the mate between the bottle and the closure.

Dip Tube - The plastic tube of a pump or atomizer that goes down into the bottle; also known as a stem.

Dirty Finish - A finish defect in which ware has a scaly appearance and which may even have black spots in it.

Dirty Neck - A neck defect which has a dirty or scaly appearance.

Dirty Ware - A general defect in Ware which consists of carbonaceous or dirty deposits on it.

Disc Top - Injected molded two piece dispensing closure. The one hand, one finger action closure has gained high consumer preference particularly on personal care and sun care products. Contrasting colors can be incorporated into the design by selecting different colors for the closure body and disc. Also called Press Top.

Discoloration - Any change from the original color. Discoloration is often caused by overheating, light exposure, irritation, or chemical attack.

Dispenser Pump - A large dispensing pump which offers controlled output for a precise dosage of product; most commonly used for food products and normally can be used in conjunction with half gallon or one gallon jugs.

Dispensing Closure - Closure designed to be used to apply the contents of a container, such as a disc lid, treatment pump, etc.

Dividers - A device, made of various materials, which separates the space within a container into two or more spaces, cells, compartments, or layers. Dividers may be plain, interlocking, scored, horizontal, vertical, or diagonal. The primary purpose of dividers is to separate the articles and/or to furnish cushioning.

Dome - A closure where the whole top surface is domed, starting at the shoulder. Doming adds to streamlining of package appearance and to the apparent height.

Dram - A unit of apothecaries’ weight, equal to 60 grains, or 1/8 ounce.

Dropper Bottles - A specific bottle style, available in glass and plastic, intended to accommodate closures with dropper squeeze bulbs and pipettes.

Dropper Unit with Pipette - A closure with an attached squeeze bulb and dispensing pipette intended for the cosmetics, pharmaceutical, medical, laboratory, and health and personal care markets. Various options available to suit individual package requirements.



Emboss - Raised design or lettering on the surface of an object accomplished by pressure of dies, rollers, printing press, etc.

Etch - (1) To treat a material with an acid, leaving the parts of the material which remain in relief to form the desired design. (2) To corrode the interior of a tin can sufficiently to be visible as an irregular instead of polished surface.



F-217 - A three-ply coextruded material. Foamed low density polyethylene core between two solid layers of low density polyethylene. (.040 thickness) Density 23-27 lbs./cu. ft. Many variants of F-217 are available. Application: General purpose. Used to seal cosmetics, liquors, drugs, foods and other products.

Figural Bottle – A bottle molded in the shape of things – animal (including human), vegetable, mineral, etc.

Fill Point - The level to which a container must be filled to furnish a designated quantity of the contents.

Finish - In general, the plastic forming the opening of a container shaped to accommodate a specific closure. Also, the ultimate surface structure of an article. In Glass and Plastic product types, Finish is expressed as 24-410, 20mm Crimp, 38mm Snap, etc. The Finish description reflects the outside diameter of a bottle or jar's neck in mm's, and a thread configuration or some other description of how the closure fits on the container. In the Closure product type, Finish refers to the thread configuration. Common configurations are -410, -2030, etc.

Fitment - A plug that fits within the neck of a bottle to control the flow of products such suntan lotions, coupled with a non-dispensing closure. The primary (non-dispensing) closure is usually removed each time to provide the desired function, while the fitment (plug) remains in place.

Flask - A style of narrow-neck bottle, usually of elliptical cross section, with flattened side walls having a width of four or more times the thickness.

Flint - Clear glass used for all types of containers

Flip-Top - A type of spout dispensing cap that has a small stem with an orifice on the top of the lid, which flips up and down with the flick of finger; more commonly known as a Turret.

Fluid Ounce - A measure of capacity equal to 1/16 pint or 1.8047 cubic inches (29.573 milliliters) in the U.S., and equal to 1/20 of an imperial pint, or 1.7339 cubic inches (28.413 milliliters) in Great Britain.

Food Packing Products - Wood barrels and tubs with liners, bags, flexible packaging, such as food seasoning, spice, snack and beverage envelopes, plastic baskets, rigid plastic containers, and plastic and foam products such as insulated containers, dry ice storage chests, and refrigerant packs.

Fruit Jar - Glass jar in which food is preserved, typically having a wide mouth for access; more commonly known as Canning Jars, or Mason Jars

Funnel - Cone-shaped utensil with a tube at the apex for conducting liquid or other substance through a small opening, as into a bottle, jug, or the like.

F-Style Can - Called "F" because it was originally created to package Flit insecticide. It is a rectangular metal can with a pouring spout.



Gasket - A liner applied between the sealing surface of container lip and closure to provide the ultimate seal. Gaskets can be made of cork, cork and rubber, rubber, fiber, paper, plastic, silicone, sponge, and non-asbestos material.

Gate - In a molding process, a restricted section of runner at the edge of an injection mold cavity, serving to permit entrance of the plastic material into the closed cavity and core assembly.

Glass - An amorphous, artificial, non-crystallian substance made by fusing some form of silica and alkali and sometimes another base such as lime.

Glass Types - Four types of glass are specified by the U.S. Pharmacopoeia on the basis of chemical durability tests. Types I, II, and III are intended for packaging parenteral preparations and Type NP for non-parenteral products. Type I: Containers normally made of borosilicate glass having a highly resistant composition. Type II: Containers made of commercial soda-lime glass which have been treated on the inside surface at a high temperature to obtain a great improvement in chemical resistance. Type III: Untreated glass containers made of commercial soda-lime glass of average or somewhat above average chemical resistance. Type NP: Untreated glass containers made of ordinary soda-lime glass.

Glassware - Stock and custom glassware, including bowls, stemware, candle holders, vases, plates and perfume bottles.

Gloss - Shine or luster of the surface of a material. If a surface clearly and plainly reflects an image of light, it has a high gloss.

Graduations - Marks on a container to show fluid levels of contents on a scale of full to empty.

Gram - Metric unit of mass equal to one thousandth of a kilogram; equivalent to 15.432 grains or 0.002 205 pounds.

Green Glass - Longtime glassmaker term for glass with a variably aqua coloration from the naturally occurring iron in the sand used for making glass.



Haze - The degree of cloudiness in a plastic material.

HDPE - Abbreviation for High Density Polyethylene. See High Density Polyethylene

Headspace - Space between the level of the contents of a container and the closure. Headspace is required to allow for expansion of a product due to heat or pressure, and to allow the container to be grasped without spilling the contents.

Heel - The lower portion of a glass or plastic container, starting with the bearing surface of the bottom and including a small portion of the lower side-wall.

Heel Radius - The degree of curvature at the extreme bottom end of a bottle extending upward from the bearing surface. Also called base radius.

Heel Tap - A defect on the bottom of an item which is a localized thick area at one side of the bottom.

High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) - Polyethylene consisting mainly of linear, or unbranched, chains with high crystallinity and melting point, and density of 0.96 or more, produced at low pressure and used chiefly for containers and articles made by injection molding.

Hot Filling - The product, usually a liquid, is passed through a heat exchanger and then filled at elevated temperatures. The closure is then applied. Any microbiological contamination on the inner surfaces of the container (usually a bottle) is destroyed by the hot liquid without heating the bottle itself, as in the technique of in-bottle pasteurization.



Imperial Round Bottle - Tall, narrow plastic bottles with gradually sloped shoulders. Also known as Bullet or Cosmo bottles; this style is a narrower version of Boston rounds.

Inch - Unit of length, 1/12 foot, equivalent to 2.54 centimeters.

Inner Seal - Additional seal applied to the land area of the finish prior to, or during the application of the closure.

Inside diameter (ID) - Measurement of a container or container part, ordinarily of the container shell or body.

Interrupted Thread - Threads on the neck finish of bottles that are not continuous, having gaps at seam areas to avoid scratching internal coatings on closures.

Inverted Oval Bottle -Oval bottles with rounded bases meant to stand on their caps; also commonly known as Malibu tubes, tottle bottles or tube bottles.



Jar - Container used to contain liquid or substance which has a neck with a diameter that is close or equal to the diameter of the body.

Jug - A bottle, usually of half-gallon or larger capacity, fitted with a handle.




Label Panel - That portion of the body of a container to which labels are affixed or decoration imprinted.

Labels - Self-sticking, bar code, UPC, IBM, mylar, cloth, color, aluminum, wrap-around, spot, cling, sleeve, pressure sensitive, heat transfer, DOT, in-mold, expanded content, holographic, rotating, inverted vertical hanging, medical, shipping, international wordless, paper, booklet, production, inventory, and shrink labels.

Laboratory Supplies - Vials, flasks, funnels, beakers, hot plates, tubes, tube racks, digital and fixed pipets, pipet and filter tips, stoppers, centrifuge ware, clamps, holders, siphons, trays, fume hoods, dispensers, microscope slides, culture dishes, syringes, incubators, water testing supplies, burets, spatulas, specimen cups, dropper assemblies, labels, ampules, and calibration equipment.

Land Dimension - The sealing surface of a glass or plastic bottle; better understood as lip of the container to which the closure liner or land seal compresses.

LDPE - Abbreviation for Low Density Polyethylene. See Low Density Polyethylene

Lens Caps - Closures with clear inserts intended for cosmetic jars and round or square cosmetic pots.

Lever Lock - Method of holding a lid on a full open head drum by means of a lever-operated tightening device or ring that can be locked in closed position.

Light Resistance - Ability of plastic material to withstand exposure to light, usually sunlight or the ultraviolet part of the light spectrum, without change of color or loss of physical and/or chemical properties.

Liner - A disc of paper, cork, composition, etc., retained in a closure to provide a sealing surface against the finish of a container. Other liner materials include pressure sensitive, sure seal, 3M top tab, pulp/poly, foil, foil seal, and heat induction.

Liner Fall Out - Liner falling out of cap; usually due to shrinkage, loss of moisture or under sized punching.

Liner Well - The space provided in a closure for a liner.

Linerless Closure - A one-component thermoplastic closure incorporating a sealing "fin" which, when applied to a container with the appropriate finish, seals most liquids including those that are volatile.

Lip - The extreme outer edge of the top of a container intended to facilitate pouring.

LLDPE - Linear low density polyethylene.

Locking Ring - Metal closing ring around the rim of a full-removable-head container intended to retain the cover and form a seal. The ring is a circular modified "V" or "U" section channel, the ends of which are drawn together by means of a bolt and the periphery thus shortened, to develop the closure.

Long Neck - A neck defect which has been stretched longer than that specified.

Lotion Pump – Dispensing pump which offers controlled output for a precise dosage of product; more suitable for viscous materials, such as lotions, liquid soaps and shampoos as well as pharmaceutical, cosmetic and other health and beauty products.

Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) - LDPE is similar to HDPE in composition. It is less rigid and generally less chemically resistant than HDPE, but more translucent. Used primarily for squeeze applications. LDPE is significantly more expensive than HDPE, but will yield a glossy bottle when produced in colors.

LTL - Less than truck load. An order which will not fill the minimum standard weight required for truck load freight rate, or is too large for FedEx or UPS shipment usually means that the customer must pay an LTL freight rate.

Lug - (1) Extensions around the circumference of a lid which are crimped down to hold the lid securely in place against the body of the container. (2) A small indentation or raised portion on the surface of a plastic bottle, provided as a means of indexing the bottle for operations such as multi-pass decorating or labeling. (3) A metal fastener used for securing the top or bottom heads of a fibre drum, steel drum or metal pail to the side-wall.

Lug Closure - Interrupted thread finishes with the GPI finish number designations in the 2000 series.

Lug Cover -A cover for metal drum or pail, with extensions around the circumference that are bent down to hold the cover securely in place against the container body.

Lug Finish - Also called Lug/Twist. A glass container finish identified by intermittent horizontal tapering protruding ridges of glass that permit the specially shaped edges of the closure to slide between the protruding lugs and fasten securely with a partial turn. These lug finishes have the GPI designations in the 2000 series.

Lug/Twist - Intermittent thread design closure - commonly used for glass food containers.



Magnum - A glass bottle, used occasionally for sparkling wines, having a capacity of two-fifths U.S. gallon. Some foreign magnums vary in capacity.

Malibu Tube - Oval bottles with rounded bases meant to stand on their caps; also commonly known as inverted oval bottles, tottle bottles, or tube bottles.

Matte Finish - Coating surface which displays no gloss when observed at any angle; also referred to as a flat finish.

MDPE - Abbreviation for Medium Density Polyethylene. See Medium Density Polyethylene

Medicine Cups - Plastic cups usually found inverted on top of OTC liquid medicine bottles; also called dose cups.

Medium Density Polyethylene (MDPE) - Slightly stiffer and has a higher melting index than low density polyethylene. Widely used in film.

Metric Conversions - Volume metric conversions include: 1 ounce = 29.57 or 8 drams, 8 ounces = 236.60 cc, 16 ounces = 473.20 cc, and 32 ounces = 946.40 cc. Liquid Capacity metric conversions include: 1 fluid ounce = 29.57 ml, 8 fluid ounces = 236.60 ml, 16 fluid ounces = 473.20 ml, 32 fluid ounces = 946.40 ml, 1 liter = 33.81 fluid ounces, 1 U.S. Gallon = 3.78 Liters, and 1 Imperial Gallon = 153.72 fluid ounces.

Mil - Unit of measurement equal to 0.001 of an inch.

Milliliter (ml) – Unit of capacity equal to one thousandth of a liter, and equivalent to 0.033815 fluid ounce.

MM – Millimeter is a metric unit of length equivalent to approximately 0.04 inch.

Mold - Also mould. (1) To shape plastic parts of finished articles by heat and pressure. (2) The cavity or matrix into which the plastic composition is placed and from which it takes its form. (3) The assembly of all parts that function collectively in the molding process.

Mold Mark - The mark in the bottom of the container that denotes the manufacturer.

Mold Number - The number assigned to each mold or set of molds for identification purposes, usually placed in that part of the container mold that forms the base of the container.

Mold Seam - A vertical line formed at the point of contact of the mold halves. The prominence of the line depends on the accuracy with which the mating mold halves are matched; also known as parting line.

Mouth - The open end of the cap opposite the top.

Multi-Layer Bottle - Bottle that is co-extruded with two or more layers to contain oxygen sensitive foods or industrial chemicals.




Naples Oval Bottle - An exception to the "oval" rule, this bottle has a round base but an oval-shaped cross section. A Naples oval has gradually sloped shoulders that taper down to the narrow base.

Narrow Mouth - Narrow mouth describes a container having an opening roughly one half the diameter of the container or smaller.

Natural Color - Term used to describe the natural material of a plastic container or closure which is translucent.

Neck - (1) The part of a container where the bottle cross section decreases to form the finish. (2) A round fitting in a can for the purpose of pouring the contents, covered by a closure.

Neck Bead - Usually a protruding circle on the neck of the bottle.

Neck Insert - Part of the mold assembly which forms the neck and finish. Sometimes called neck rings.

Neck Ring - That part of the mold equipment which forms the outside of the neck finish of a bottle.

Neck Ring Seams - A finish defect. Seams which have a fin of glass around the parting line between the finish and the neck of the bottle.

Novelty Items, Plastic - Items available include PVC canisters in the shape of characters such as a Santa Claus boot, taxi, or train, candy jar containers, brightly colored boxes for school supplies, cosmetics, jewelry, drinking straws and tips, various styles of stirrers and picks for drinks, stadium cups and sports bottles.



Oblong - A particular shape. A rectangular figure having greater length than width, may have angle or rounded corners and parallel or nearly parallel sides.

OD - Outside dimension. The outside dimensions of a container, package or part. In metal drums, it is the diameter over the rolling hoops.

Opaque - Descriptive of material or substance which will not transmit light.

Orifice - The opening in a container through which product is dispensed.

Orifice Reducer - Plug or fitment with a controlled-diameter opening. When inserted in the I.D. of a bottle neck finish, it reduces the flow of product being dispensed.

Ounce - A unit of weight equal to 437.5 grains or 1/16 pound (28.349 grams) avoirdupois; or a unit of 480 grains, 1/12 pound (31.103 grams) troy or apothecaries' weight.

Outside Dimension (OD) - The outside dimensions of a container, package or part. In metal drums, it is the diameter over the rolling hoops.

Oval - A container which has an elliptical cross section perpendicular to the major axis.

Overcap - A secondary closure that fits over the primary closure or seal mechanism. It protects the primary closure from accidental dispensing. Overcaps are also used to enhance the design of a package.

Overflow Capacity - The capacity of a container to the top of the finish or to the point of overflow.



P/E - Abbreviation for Polyethylene. See polyethylene.

P/P - Abbreviation for polypropylene. See polypropylene.

P/S - Abbreviation for polystyrene. See polystyrene.

Packer Bottle- Also known as pharmaceutical rounds, these are straight-sided, wide-mouth bottles with short, sloped shoulders.

Pail Lids - Plastic and steel pail lids in a variety of shapes, sizes and colors, and with a variety of closures and spouts. Labeling is available.

Pails - Plastic and steel. Various sizes and shapes are available, as well as different decorating options.

Pallets - Wood pallets.

Parting Line - A mark on a molding or casting where the halves of the mold meet in closing.

PC - See polycarbonate

PET - Abbreviation for Polyethylene Terephthalate. See Polyethylene terephthalate.

Phenolic - Generic name for phenol-formaldehyde thermosetting plastic.

Pinhole - A very small hole in a plastic container, film, etc.

Pipette - Glass or plastic tube portion of a medicinal dropper closure.

Pipets, Transfer - Variations include digital, fixed, general purpose, graduated, fine tip, special purpose, narrow stem and extra long.

Pitch - On a closure thread, the distance from one point to a similar point on the next adjacent thread.

Plastic Recycling Code - The recycling code on the bottom of each container consists of a triangle formed by three arrows, with a number in the center and distinguishing letters under the triangle. The number codes are: 1) PETE = polyethylene terephthalate, 2) HDPE = high density polyethylene, 3) V = vinyl, 4) LDPE = low density polyethylene, 5) PP = polypropylene, 6) PS = polystyrene, and 7) Other.

Plastisol - A liquid mixture of resins and plasticizers solidified by the application of heat.

Plug - (1) A type of closure which is designed to be inserted into the opening of a container. May be held by friction or by screw threads. (2) A threaded closure part for metal drums. Usually marketed with a receiving flange which is fastened to the drum body or head by welding or other method. (3) A bung. (4) The removable top furnished with certain types of cans.

Plug Seal - A narrow non-flexible protrusion molded into a closure which fits into the bottle neck during normal bottle sealing operations. To be effective, specific inside dimensional tolerances are required for both the closure plug and the bottle neck finish. Plug seals are most commonly seen on snap-on style closures.

Plugs - Stock and custom plugs available, including mailing tube plugs, even-tint plugs, side pull plugs, fitting plugs and vented plugs.

Polycarbonate - Polycarbonate is window-clear, amazingly strong, and rigid. It is autoclavable , nontoxic and the toughest of all thermoplastics. PC is a special type of polyester in which dihydric phenols are joined through carbonate linkages. These linkages are subject to chemical reaction with bases and concentrated acids, cydrolytic attack at elevated temperatures (e.g. during autoclaving), and make PC soluble in various organic solvents. For many applications, the transparency and unusual strength of PC offset these limitations.

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - A thermoplastic material composed of polymers of vinyl chloride, a colorless solid with outstanding resistance to water, alcohols, and concentrated acids and alkalines. Compounded with plasticizers, it yields a flexible material superior to rubber in aging properties.

Polycone - Black phenolic lid with a conical shaped liner made of an oil-resistant plastic. This lid is perfect for chemicals, solvents, oils, essential oils, cleaners and more.

Polyethylene (P/E) - A thermoplastic material composed of polymers of ethylene. It is normally a translucent, tough, waxy solid which is unaffected by water and by a large range of chemicals. There are three general classifications: low density, medium density and high density.

Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) - Known as thermoplastic polyester. Has the unusual ability to exist in either an amorphous or highly crystalline state. The crystalline state is necessary for extruding the material, and the amorphous state permits it to be oriented. Widely used in beverage bottles and in food trays designed for microwave and conventional ovens.

Poly-Line - Poly-Line is a backing material to which facings are laminated in the manufacture of duplex liners. It is a construction of white P/E laminated to P/S foam on one or both sides. Poly-Line is an alternative to P/E foam.

Polypropylene (P/P) - Polypropylene is similar to polyethylene, but each unit of the chain has a methyl group attached. It is translucent, autoclavable, and has no known solvent at room temperature. It is slightly more susceptible than polyethylene to strong oxidizing agents. It offers the best stress-crack resistance of the polyolefins. Products made of polypropylene are brittle at ambient temperature and may crack or break if dropped from benchtop height. Used in film, in sheet and for molded rigid containers.

Polystyrene (P/S) - A thermoplastic material derived from the polymerization of styrene (vinyl benzene); non-toxic, tasteless, odorless, good general dielectric properties; excellent water and weather resistance and resistant to most foods, drinks, etc., with the exception of essential oils, gasoline, turpentine, which will harm the material. Poor impact strength.

Pour out Finish - A glass container finish, with an undercut immediately below the top, design to facilitate pouring without dripping. The pour out finish is used principally for prescription and other drug and chemical containers.

Pour Spout - A dispensing spout used for pouring and measuring control when dispensing oil, vinegar, dish soap or other liquids. They also help reduce drips and spills.

Powder Shakers - Complete package, including container, powder shaker fitment and closure, available in a variety of sizes and shapes.

Powder Sifters - Complete package, including container, powder sifter fitment and closure, available in a variety of sizes and shapes.

Pressure Sensitive Seal - Additional seal applied to the land area of the finish prior to, or during the application of the closure; which adheres to the finish with the pressure of the application of the closure.

Pull/Push - Injected molded two piece dispensing closure. Closure is opened by pulling up and closed by pushing down the spout. Overcaps are optional.

Pulpboard - Also P. Pulpboard is a common backing material to which facings are laminated in manufacture of duplex liners. It is mostly ground wood or mechanical pulp (usually about 80 percent ground wood to 20 percent sulphite pulp). It can be made up of virgin and reclaimed wood fibers. Standard thickness is .035". Solid wood pulpboard is clean, sanitary, free of objectionable odors and flavors, and is satisfactory for use in direct contact with food.

Pumps, Dispensing - Plastic, glass and metal dispensers, double dispensers, airless dispensers, bottle top dispensers for dispensing aggressive reagents, sensitive reagents or sterile fluids, syringe dispensers, tablet dispensers, lotion and soap dispensers, metered dose dispensers, and dispensing pumps for pails and drums.

Push-Up - The recessed area on the bottom of a bottle designed to allow an even bearing surface on the outside edge to prevent the bottle from rocking.

PVC - Abbreviation for polyvinyl chloride. See polyvinyl chloride.

PW - Liner consisting of plain pulpboard with a .001" to .002" thick coating of wax on one side. Its sole point of merit is low cost. It is an adequate liner for packaging non-hygroscopic dry products, but should not be used where other than very nominal protection from atmospheric moisture is needed. Not recommended for liquid products.




Ramp - A small depressed cavity (detent) in the base of the bottle to act as a guide in positioning the bottle in the decorating machine for application of decoration.

Recessed Panel - A container design in which the flat area for labeling is indented or recessed.

Recyclable - Packaging materials that may be processed for reuse by a series of changes or treatments, but not necessarily for their original use.

Recycling Service - Companies offering to recycle plastic or paper products, in order to reduce waste materials going into landfills.

Reducer – A fitment, usually plastic, which when placed into the mouth of a container reduces the orifice opening on the container.

Removal Torque - The turning or twisting force required to remove a lug cap, screw cap, or twist off crown. Usually expressed in terms of "inch pounds" and measured by means of a reliable torque meter.

Reverse Taper Closure - A closure silhouette characterized by the top of the closure being larger in diameter than the open end.

Rigaree - Parallel lines of ribbons added as decoration to the sides of bottles and glassware.

Rocker - A container with a bulged or deformed bottom, causing the container to rock when in an upright position.

Rim - The extreme upper surface of the finish where the throat begins, also known as the lip.

Rocker Bottom - A bottom defect which has sagged so that the container is unstable when placed on a flat surface.

Rods - Glass and polyethylene rods are used particularly in the drug and cosmetic industries. One of the most common is a balled-end rod for touch applying medicines.

Roll-On Balls, Plastic - Hollow and solid roll-on balls for deodorant containers in various sizes. Materials used include HDPE, LDPE, P/P, P/S, PTFE, acetal and nylon.

ROPP - Roll-on pilferproof aluminum closure.

Rough Finish - A finish defect which has irregular, minute imperfections causing a rough surface.



SAN -.Abbreviation for Styrene acrylonitrile. See Styrene acrylonitrile.

Sauce Bottle - A round bottle with a narrow neck that tapers into a wider base. Also commonly known as Woozy bottles these have a gradual, smooth taper from neck to base while sauce bottles have a more rounded shoulder. Sauce bottles often have indented label panels.

Scoops - A wide variety is available, including P/P and P/E measuring scoops, PET powder scoops and P/P double-end scoops.

Screw Threads (inside or internal) - Finish type where the screw threads for holding the closure are formed or tooled on the inside of the finish.

Screw Threads (outside or external) - Finish type where the screw threads for holding the closure are formed or tooled on the outside of the finish

Screw-Thread Vial - A vial with a very short neck and an outside screw-thread finish.

Sealing Discs - Various sizes to fit most single and double wall jars, and cosmetic cases. Options include embossing and with or without tabs.

Sealing Surface - That portion of a glass or plastic container finish which will make contact with the interior liner of the cap to effect the seal.

Seamless - Made in one piece without a joint.

Serum Vial - A vial having a neck with a relatively small opening to receive a rubber plug stopper and aluminum seal.

SFYP - When pressure sensitive or heat induction liners are printed with the words "SEALED FOR YOUR PROTECTION".

Shear Marks - A general defect. C-shaped marks making a definite line in the glass.

Shoulder - (1) That part of a container between the main body and the neck. (2) That portion of a closure immediately adjacent to and including the corner where top and skirt join. (3) In a can, an off-set on a straight side to act as a stop or support.

Shoulder Check - A shoulder defect where a check which is shallow and in the surface, usually wavy in appearance.

Shrink Bands - Stock and custom sizes of PVC and PETG shrink bands, including tamper evident, seamless and seamed bands, cellulose self-sealing bands and Viscose Celon shrink bands. Options include printing and color decoration.

Shrink Capsule - Tinfoil secondary cover closure that shrinks with the application of heat to cover the closure and finish of a bottles product.

Shrink Labels & Bands - Pre-decorated plastic sleeves that are slipped over the container and heated until they conform to the surface of the container. Same principle as the sleeve label, but superior for odd and small shapes.

Sifter Fitment - A plastic or metal component of a package designed to allow shaking out of dry products, as with a table salt shaker. Snaps over bead, with metal or plastic cap applied over the fitment.

Silica - Mineral with many cryptocristallin varieties (quartz, rock crystal, amethyst, etc.) and amorphous.

Silkscreening - Also known as Silk Screen Printing; A method of printing in which the ink is forced through a design on a taut screen, made of nylon, wire, or other tough screen material, onto the container to be printed. This method can be applied to closures, liners and most containers regardless of shape or size.

Size - In Glass and Plastic product types, Size refers to the nominal capacity of a bottle or jar. The nominal capacity is the intended capacity of the container. It is expressed in fluid ounces (oz), gallons (gal), milliliters (ml), drams, etc. In the Closure product type, Size refers to the outside diameter of a bottle or jar's neck finish, including the threads. The size is usually designated in millimeters (mm).

Skirt - The vertical part of a closure below the shoulder.

Sleeve Label - A decorated, plastic label made into a tubular form that fits over and on plastic bottles.

Slip Cap - (1) A metal closure with indentations on its sides to make a friction fit on a vial with a slip-cap finish. (2) A closure made of soft material such as polyethylene or rubber, without threads, to be pushed over the tip or neck of a container and held in place by friction.

Snap Fit Closure - A closure held in place through the use of beads or undercuts rather than threads.

Snap Top - The most prevalent hinged closure. This closure features a spud and orifice design that is sanitary and self-cleaning to prevent clogging. It is available in a wide range of orifice sizes. The snap type can also be designed with an off center spout to direct product flow. The pour spout can be easily lined with a variety of heat sealed materials to ensure product freshness.

Soda – Soda hydroxide, white glassy solid material very soluble in water and alcohol. It is obtained by the dissolution of sodium chloride by electrolysis.

Soda-Lime (or Soft) Glass - A glass with a substantial portion of lime in the formula.

Softening Point - Temperature at which a thread or rod of glass rapidly deforms under its own weight.

Spatulas - Varieties for the cosmetics, pharmaceutical, food and laboratory markets.

Spilt-Top Lid - A closure which once applied to a container, has two sides which can flip open separately; usually one side is open and the other contains a shaker type dispenser.

Sprayers - Trigger, finger-tip, pump, continuous spray and metering sprayers, hose-end sprayers for lawn and garden, and compressed air sprayers. Different types of decoration are available, including silk-screen and hot stamp decoration.

Stacker Cap - A closure designed specifically to nest with the bottom plate of a container to facilitate the stacking of filled containers on top of each other.

Stelvin(R) - The Stelvin(R) neck finish can be found on some glass wine bottles. It is a screw thread finish designed to accommodate the Stelvin(R) closure, an aluminium cap with a tamper evident breakaway band. Offers product preservation, a modern look and practicality.

Stem - The plastic tube of a pump or atomizer that goes down into the bottle; also known as a dip tube.

Stippling - A decoration consisting of a system of closely spaced small raised dots on the outer surface of a container or closure

Stopper - A solid, cork-shaped, ground-to-fit plug used to seal some bottles.

Storage Life - The period of time during which a product can be stored under specified temperature conditions and remain suitable for use. Sometimes called shelf life or working life.

Straight Sided - Round container that had the same top and bottom diameter.

Straight Sided Oval Bottle - These oval bottles have straight vertical sides, a narrow depth, horizontal shoulders and oval-shaped bases.

Striation - In plastic bottle manufacturing, a longitudinal line in the parison or bottle due to a disturbance in the melt path.

Style - In Glass and Plastic product types, Style can refer to standard industry names, such as Cylinder, Boston Round, F-Style, Modern Round, Wide Mouth (W/M) Jar, etc. If a name is not standard industry-wide, Style refers to the sides of the bottle, i.e., straight sided, tapered, etc. In the Closure product type, Style designates standard industry names. If a closure has threads, the Style is Continuous Thread. Other Styles include Dispensing, Child Resistant Closure (CRC), etc.

Styrene Acrylonitrile (SAN) - Thermoplastic copolymer with good stiffness, scratch, chemical and stress-crack resistance. Similar to general purpose polystrene except for improved impact resistance and barrier properties; increased rigidity and UV stability; natural straw color; transparent.



T/H - Abbreviation for tight head. See tight head.

Tamper Resistant Seal - A seal that cannot be opened without partially destroying the cap or otherwise showing evidence of tampering.

Tamper Evident - Any device which shows visible signs that a container has been opened.

Tamper-Evident Band - (1) A secondary closure made of aluminum, steel, plastic, tape or film to be applied over a primary cap-closure of a rigid container, and designed to require tearing off by manual effort before the container is opened or contents removed. Purpose is to reveal any tampering with the primary closure. (2) Also a perforated extension of tamper-evident closures.

Tamper Evident Breakaway Band Closure - Section of the closure skirt that is weakened or perforated in some manner when the closure is opened. Designed to reveal removal of the closure was attempted.

Tamper Evident Closure - Closure or liner system incorporating a feature that visually indicates if the closure has been removed or the product has been exposed. Removal of the closure or liner system activates the indicating feature.

Tamper Evident Tear Band - A closure with a band, usually with a tab for grasping, designed to be detached by the consumer. Designed to reveal removal of the closure was attempted.

Tanks, Storage - Metal or plastic containers designed for liquid storage, processing, and transporting.

Tear Strip - A narrow ribbon of film, cord, etc., usually incorporated mechanically in the wrapper or overwrap during the wrapping operation or imbedded in a carton to facilitate opening of the package. The scored strip on a key-opening can. Tear tape.

Tear Tab - An extension of the tearing strip on a package to permit easy grasping with the fingers.

Tear Under Finish - A finish defect. A finish which has a small surface section of glass torn from under it.

Thread - The indented curved formed section of the cap on the skirt that engages and matches the thread of the container for screw fit purposes. The thread may be continuous or interrupted.

Thread Engagement - Actual contact made by the closure and bottle finish thread; usually specified in number of turns.

Thread Start - Position at which the full thread depth toward the open end of the closure first occurs.

Thread Turns - Measurement of thread revolutions in a closure or on a container finish.

Tight Head - Used by drum and pail manufacturers to indicate that the lid is a structural component of the drum or pail, instead of a separate part.

Tin - Low-melting, malleable, ductile metallic element nearly approaching silver in color and luster.

Tins, Decorative - Specialty metal packaging. Usually recyclable. Decorative slip cover tins are used to advertise product. Some tins are considered collectors items after product packaged inside is consumed.

TL - Truckload.

Tolerance - A specified allowance for deviations in weighing, measuring, etc., or for deviations from the standard dimensions or weight.

Torque – Application - The rotational force with which a closure is applied to a bottle finish during capping. It affects seal integrity and tightness between bottle and closure. A properly established application torque will provide sealing integrity under expected conditions of temperatures, vibration, humidity, and shock.

Tottle Bottle – Tottle bottles are oval bottles with rounded bases meant to stand on their caps; also commonly known as inverted oval bottles, Malibu tubes, or tube bottles.

Transfer Bead - A projecting bead on the outer surface of some glass containers, usually just below the finish, to provide a surface of engagement for the jaws of handling devices during manufacture.

Translucent - Descriptive of a material or substance transmitting some light, but not clear enough to be seen through.

Transparent - Descriptive of a material or substance capable of a high degree of light transmission (e.g., glass). Some polypropylene films and acrylic moldings are outstanding in this respect.

Treatment Pump - Dispensing pump which offers the most controlled output for a precise dosage of product; commonly used for moisturizers, wrinkle creams, eye creams, essential oils and other fine cosmetic products.

Trigger Sprayer – A device that attaches to a spray bottle to allow a product to be dispensed in a fine or coarse spray; and has a trigger mechanism off the bottom which is pulled versus pushed.

Tube Bottle - Oval bottles with rounded bases meant to stand on their caps. Also commonly known as inverted oval bottles, Malibu tubes, or tottle bottles.

Tubes - A hollow, usually cylindrical body of metal, glass, rubber, or other material, used especially for conveying or containing its contents.

Tubs - HDPE, LDPE, P/P, P/E, P/S, PET and PVC tubs. Various sizes, colors and shapes are available. Lids are also available, as well as printing, silk screening, labeling and decorating.

Tubular Glass - Containers made from preformed hollow glass tubes. The tubes are cut into desired length, and by heat and pressure they are shaped into the desired configuration. Unlike blown glass, tubular items do not require molds.

Turret - An injected molded two piece dispensing closure. It requires that the turret "spout" be lifted with a finger to open and dispense.

Type I Glass - A borosilicate glass which releases the least amount of alkali. It is commonly used for pharmaceutical or fine chemical products that are sensitive to PH changes.

Type II Glass - A soda lime glass (Type III) that has been de-alkalized by treating the interior surfaces to eat away the alkali on or near the glass surfaces. The undesirable characteristic of Type II Glass is that the treating etches the surface, causing a frosted appearance.

Type III Glass - A soda lime glass and the most common in use. Type III is compatible with most items: food, beverages, common chemicals, etc.

Type NP Glass - General-purpose soda lime glass



Unlined Closure - Closure without a liner disk inserted, but designed to accept one.



Vacuum Closure - Any closure equipped with a liner capable of holding a vacuum.

Vials, Glass - Styles include tubular, serum, injectable antibiotic, safety-coated, autosampler, screw thread, patent lip, display, shell, capsule, and perfume sampler vials. Various colors are available.

Vials, Plastic - Child resistant, snap-cap non-child resistant, threaded, and safety-coated vials. Various sizes and colors are available.

Volume - Also known as displacement or capacity. (1) The amount of water displaced by a model of a container; used to estimate its capacity. (2) The amount of product a container is designed to hold, i.e., up to the fill-point of the container. (3) Also, the overflow capacity, i.e., amount of product a container will hold when filled to overflowing.



Waist - The central portion of a container which has a smaller cross-section than the adjacent areas.

Weathering - The attack on glass surface by atmospheric elements.

Wide Mouth - Wide mouth describes any container having an opening roughly half of the diameter of the container to almost the full diameter size of the container.

Wide Mouth Finish - A finish on a container, the diameter of the finish being large relative to the diameter of the body.

Woozy Bottle - A round bottle with a narrow neck that tapers into a wider base. Woozy bottles have a gradual, smooth taper from neck to base while sauce bottles have a more rounded shoulder. Sauce bottles often have indented label panels; also commonly known as sauce bottles.